Therefore, this index could be expressed as a percentage Thomason et al. The study groups consisted of 35 renal transplant patients receiving CsA, 25 patients receiving phenytoin, 26 patients receiving nifedipine, and 18 patients receiving diltiazem therapy.
The aim of this study is to determine whether NO levels in plasma, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid GCF can serve as a potential biomarker for the evaluation of drug-induced gingival overgrowth risk. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate nitrite and nitrate levels in plasma, saliva, and GCF from responders and non-responders treated with either CsA, phenytoin, nifedipine, or diltiazem, and to determine whether NO levels in plasma, saliva, and GCF can serve as a potential biomarker for the evaluation of drug-induced gingival overgrowth risk.
Some of the suggested factors responsible for this imbalance are cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and growth factors Trackman and Kantarci, ; Chae et al. The presence of all maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth was also required. Nitrite and nitrate levels in saliva, GCF, and plasma were analyzed by Griess reagent.
Briefly, the height of the gingival tissue was measured from the cemento-enamel junction CEJ to the free gingival margin. Not all patients receiving these drugs develop gingival overgrowth and the severity of overgrowth varies between patients.
GCF samples were obtained from maxillary anterior teeth. Vertical measurements were performed according to the Miller and Damm index Table 1 Demographic variables of study population. Although NO metabolites have a very short life, nitrite and nitrate are the relatively stable end products of NO oxidation Lappin et al.
After saliva collection, in order to determine the plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, venous blood samples were collected into lithium-heparin tubes. NO levels in biological fluids have been used as a diagnostic biomarker in many diseases.
Due to its reactivity and short half-life, direct measurements of NO from tissues and biological fluids are hard to perform. However, only few animal and clinical studies have investigated the relationship between NO and drug-induced gingival overgrowth Fu et al.
The overgrowth normally begins at the interdental papillae and is usually confined to the attached gingiva, but it may extend coronally and interfere with the occlusion, mastication and speech, and may also compromise proper plaque control Marshall and Bartold, Saliva, GCF, and plasma samples were obtained from each participants.
Horizontal measurements were assigned a score of between 0 and 2, as follows: Although the structural characteristics and pharmacologic effects of each of these drugs are different, all of them can cause gingival overgrowth that generally has a similar clinical and histological appearance.
Horizontal gingival overgrowth was measured in the buccal-lingual direction of all interdental papillae of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth according to Miranda et al.
However, commercial standards were implemented to confirm its sensitivity and specificity in the present study. However, when all drug groups were considered, saliva nitrite and nitrate levels could not be used as a biomarker for drug-induced gingival overgrowth.
The increase in the size of buccal and lingual papillae was measured from the enamel surface to the outer papillary surface at the interdental contact point. Patients participated in this study were obtained from outpatients attending the Department of Nephrology, Neurology, and Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University.
Salivary nitrite and nitrate levels could be used as periodontal disease biomarkers in phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth, and that saliva seems to have a better diagnostic potential than GCF and plasma for the evaluation of drug-induced gingival overgrowth risk.
A total of Turkish patients 50 male, 54 female were included in the study. Pregnant women, subjects with systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or any other form of systemic inflammatory involvement, patients who have mouth breath and restorative crowns at anterior regions, and used any antibiotics or received periodontal treatment within the last 6 months and who also received one more drug leading to gingival overgrowth were excluded from the study.
A total of 10 paper strips with GCF were obtained with this standardize technique from maxillary anterior six teeth of each patient for detecting GCF nitrite and nitrate levels. The following grades were scored in six points around each tooth on maxillary and mandibular anterior region: Citric acid was applied to the dorsum of the tongue, held there by the subject for 10 s and 1 ml of saliva was collected from each patient as described in detail before Francis et al.
Materials and methods Study population and design This research study was conducted at the Department of Periodontology, Hacettepe University between February and September Due to the fact that NO levels could be affected by smoking, smokers were not included in the study.
Mann Whitney U test was used to compare each clinical or laboratory findings for individual drug group between responders and non-responders.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The vertical and horizontal scores were calculated to determine an overgrowth score for each gingival papillae. The severity of GO was also determined with this percentage.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. To avoid blood contamination and possible stimulation of GCF flow during clinical measurements, samples were collected before any other clinical recordings except the PI. To eliminate the risk of evaporation, paper strips with GCF were immediately transported to a previously calibrated electronic GCF measuring device for volume determination.
The protocol of the study was approved by the ethics committee of the Hacettepe University.DETERMINATION OF NITRITE IN PROCESSED MEAT Abstract A meat sample will be analyzed to determine its nitrite, NO 2- content using a colorimetric procedure.
Nitrite reacts with NEDA-Sulfa in acidic solutions to produce a. Dec 01, · To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the association of plasma, saliva, and GCF nitrite/nitrate levels with drug-induced gingival overgrowth in patients receiving either CsA, phenytoin, nifedipine, or diltiazem therapy.
Environmental Health Investigations Branch • California Department of Health Services February Health Concerns Related to Nitrate and Nitrite in To determine if the level of nitrate/nitrite in your water is safe, compare your test results to.
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality, National Water Quality Laboratory Colorimetric Determination of Nitrate Plus Nitrite in.
Fluorimetric determination of Ce(III) resulting from the oxidation of nitrite with Ce(IV) presents one of the more simpler processes but can be susceptible to the influence of other redox species. More selective approaches have.
hazards, most international organizations set legal limits to nitrite content in drinking water. The European Union limit for drinking water is mg L-1 of NO N. For this reason, nitrite levels are routinely determined in quality control analyses of drinking, waste, marine and underground waters, among others.Download