The art and science of distributing and applying military power to attain national objectives in peace and war Joint Pub Strategy is not crisis management. Army War College in consonance with Joint Pub defines the levels of strategy within the state as: Title 10 requires that not later than February 15 of each even-numbered year, the Chairman submit to the Senate Committee on Armed Services and the House Committee on Armed Services a comprehensive examination of the national military strategy.
That is ends, ways, and means must be consistent. Graphically the relationship between strategy and the levels of war appear as: Policy is the expression of the desired end state sought by the government. The Secretary provides an assessment and comments on the report and submits these comments to Congress when the report is formally transmitted.
His proposition is a common model for analyzing and evaluating the strategy of historical and current strategic level leadership. Richard Yarger Gregory D.
Means resources explain what specific resources are to be used in applying the concepts to accomplish the objectives and use no verb. The levels of strategy are distinct, but interrelated because of the hierarchical and comprehensive nature of strategy.
The art and science of developing integrated strategic concepts and courses of action directed toward securing the objectives of national and alliance or coalition security policy and strategy by the use of force, threatened use of force, or operations not involving the use of force within a theater Joint Pub Geographically, tactics is narrowly defined, operational level is broader and more regional in orientation, and strategy is theater-wide, intercontinental, or global.
In turn, the National Military Strategy leads to lower strategies appropriate to the various levels of war.
The NMS Report must provide a description of the strategic environment and the opportunities and challenges that affect United States national interests and United States national security. A simple test for a way is to ask "in order to do what? Such use is inappropriate.
Strategists must think holistically--that is comprehensively. Ends are objectives that if accomplished create, or contribute to, the achievement of the desired end state at the level of strategy being analyzed and, ultimately, serve national interests.
If the objective is "defend the United States what? Thus strategy at the national military level should articulate military objectives at the national level and express the concepts and resources in terms appropriate to the national level for the specified objective.
In the cosmic scheme of things Foster may well be right, but reality requires more than a "weltanschauung. It represents a logical means of delegating responsibility and authority among senior leadership. It also suggests that if strategy consists of objectives, concepts, and resources each should be appropriate to the level of strategy and consistent with one another.
Military capabilities are always employed as part of an integrated national approach that employs all instruments of national power—military, information, diplomatic, legal, intelligence, finance, and economic.
Means can be tangible or intangible.
The analysis of the end state and guidance yields objectives leading to the desired end state. Some confusion exists because the concept for higher strategy often defines the objectives of the next lower level of strategy.
From this National Security Strategy the major activities and departments develop subordinate strategies.
Foster argued in a Washington Quarterly article that there is no official or accepted general theory of strategy in the United States. Army War College for years--although sometimes hard to identify amongst all the intellectual clutter.
This report must delineate a national military strategy consistent with the most recent National Security Strategy prescribed by the President ; the most recent annual report of the Secretary of Defense submitted to the President and Congress ; and the most recent Quadrennial Defense Review conducted by the Secretary of Defense.The flaw in Lykke's "equation", or at least its application, is the assumption that ends, way, and means are constants.
Ends are a function of actions by the enemy, by allies, by neutrals, and by internal factors — E = f(e,a,n,i). Ways are. After describing the security environment in which military forces will operate, the NMS Report must specify the “ends”, “ways”, and “means” of the strategy.
US national military objectives are the “ends”, describing what the Armed Forces are expected to accomplish. Oct 31, · (ends, ways, means) and Cog analysis will greatly enhance military planning.
The Strategic Framework arthur F. lykke Jr. developed the strategic frame-work of ends, ways, and means.4 For lykke, strategy is a coherent expression of a process that identifies the ends, ways, and means designed to achieve a certain goal.
ways (courses of action) plus means (instruments by which some end can be achieved).” 3 This formula is deeply ingrained in the thinking of US military officers and analysts.
The Ends, Ways, and Means of US Policy Towards North Korea By Cynthia M. Lewis Inter/National Security Studies Lesson 8 22 June Instructor: Dr. Bruce Bechtol Jr. Balancing what is described in the following chapters as ends, ways, an d means—remains at the core of the Army War College’s approach to national security and military strategy and strategy formulation.Download