In order to make sense of these beliefs in terms of the question, candidates will also have to explain what the Cosmological argument is and why it is believed by some that Hume may have undermined the success of the proof, such as it was.
As a result of this process, as shaped by human fears and ignorance, the world becomes populated with human-like invisible, intelligent powers that are objects of worship. Several different strategies are available to the theist to defuse this problem — that is, theodicies of various kinds.
Matter, therefore, and spirit are at bottom equally unknown; and we cannot determine what qualities may inhere in the one or in the other. The first category concerns the witnesses to the event. The evidence telling against the occurrence of a miracle must always constitute a full proof — since we have uniform human experience in support of the laws of nature EU, Genuine theism involves a more specific set of beliefs: Hume believes that there is no probability left in support of them.
Among the several arguments that he puts forward on this score, four points are especially important. It is impossible to claim that this is analytically true.
None of these considerations, however, show that the laws of nature have actually been violated. Any being that exists can also not exist, and there is no contradiction implied in conceiving its non-existence, but this is exactly what would have to be the case, if its existence were necessary.
Either the first cause has both goodness and malice or it has neither. Similarly, why could God not have been more generous in providing his creatures with better endowments for their survival and happiness i. In terms of mathematics, infinite regress is entirely possible as it is always possible to increase or decrease a number.
Despite this catalogue of human suffering and grief, we find ourselves too afraid of death to put an end to our miserable existence. Surely things could have been arranged so that these extremes and their destructive consequences could be avoided?
Aquinas believed that, using this logic, the fact that everything used to not exist must mean that there was a time when nothing at all existed because there would be nothing to bring anything else into existence. If we consider the specific circumstances and conditions in which miracle reports generally occur, and the sources they come from, Hume believes we will have to conclude that testimony in support of actual historical miracles, of the kind that the major religions rely on, are far from reliable.
The philosopher David Hume questioned the very notion of cause and effect. What we cannot do, Hume argues, is explain away all evidence of this kind by way of assuming that this world is the perfect creation of a perfect being.
When we are removed from this world these goals are taken away and punishment becomes pointlessly retributive ESY, It is this assumption that needs to be established, so we must not assume it in our reasoning. He asks what happens at the precise moment when the cause is not yet the effect and the effect is no longer the cause?
The true roots of genuine theism can be discovered in the psychological dynamics that first give rise to polytheism. One strength which the argument holds is that, as with the first two ways, this argument appeals strongly to human reason and logic, leading it to be widely accepted by empiricists.
The questions are these: It depends on metaphysical assumptions about the nature of mind soul that are philosophically unconvincing, involving obscure ideas that are plainly at odds with our everyday experience and observations concerning the relationship between mind and body.
It is true that, by human, a posteriori logic, things must indeed have a cause which exists outside its own essence or self. In this context he argues that any idea or belief in life in a future state is too faint and weak to have any practical influence over our passions and conduct.
There is a deeper problem with the idea of a necessary being too. It would be to cast doubt on the claim that Christ is God and the saviour of human kind. However, this criticism could be weakened by arguing that Kant is just rehashing his criticism of the Ontological differences despite the obvious differences in the Ontological and Cosmological Arguments Ontological Argument is a priori, Cosmological argument is a posteriori.
It is in this sense that Hume maintains that miracles do not occur. As belief is almost absolutely requisite to the exciting our passions, so the passions in their turn are very favourable to belief… Admiration and surprise have the same effect as the other passions; and accordingly we may observe, that among the vulgar, quacks and projectors meet with a more easy faith upon account of their magnificent pretensions, than if they kept themselves within the bounds of moderation.
As it stands, this misrepresents his view. Another weakness of the Cosmological Argument is put forward by J. It is clear that the theist is in no position to support this claim. But surely they can never prove these attributes. In the first place, Hume asks, what is the point or purpose of punishment in a future state?
You must prove these pure unmixed, and uncontrollable attributes from the present mixed and confused phenomena, and from these alone. I will allow, that pain or misery in man is compatible with infinite power and goodness in the Deity, even in your sense of these attributes: While this is an obvious strength, the degree to which it strengthens the argument could be brought into existence because, once again, it relies on the assumption that an infinite regression is not possible which, if untrue, would completely unbalance the entire argument.
What have you advanced by all these concessions?Hume’s concerns over the structure of the cosmological argument. Hume challenges the idea that just because one ‘effect’ in a chain has a ‘cause’ it does not follow that a whole series of cause and effect has a single cause. This is.
Essay mark scheme – Hume and the cosmological argument. 2 (a) Explain Hume’s criticisms of the Cosmological Argument.
 June A Candidates may begin by exploring the fact that Hume had problems with the very notion of mint-body.com pointed out that while we are very comfortable using the language of causation, scientifically it. Cosmological Argument Page 1 of 5 However, other philosophers such as Hume would say that we cannot trust knowledge which is purely a posteriori cannot be trusted, since, as Hume says we can never know One of the remaining criticisms of the argument is that, if God caused the universe.
Explain Hume’s criticisms of the teleological argument (25 marks) Hume criticised the teleological argument in plenty of ways as he believed that the argument was deeply flawed. His first point criticised Paley’s analogy of the watch. Another argument that Hume presents, in criticism of the cosmological argument, concerns the assumption that an infinite series of causes and effects requires some explanation or cause for its existence.
Philosophy - Essay Plans. STUDY. PLAY 'Explain Hume's criticisms of the Cosmological Argument' (25) Intro - Outline the Cosmological Argument All events must have a cause.
The universe is an event. God is the first cause of the universe.Download